THE SCIENCE BEHIND ROTORS
Anybody who works on brakes knows what brake rotors do. They provide a friction surface for the disc brake pads to rub
against when the brakes are applied. The friction created by the pads rubbing against the rotor generates heat and brings the
vehicle to a stop.
The underlying scientific principle here is that friction converts motion into heat -- a LOT of heat! The amount of heat that's
generated depends on the speed and weight of the vehicle, and how hard the brakes are applied.
A large heavy vehicle like a Chevy Suburban will obviously generate more heat when braking than a Toyota Echo if both
vehicles brake from the same speed. But the little Toyota may produce more heat than the big Suburban if the braking speeds
are different, say 60 mph for the Toyota and 20 mph for the Suburban. Speed multiplies the effect of weight and creates
momentum (also called "inertia" or "kinetic energy."
HOW IT ALL STARTED
Over three hundred years ago, a guy sitting under an apple tree in England made a startling observation that was to change
history. As the story goes, an apple fell out of the tree and bonked him on the head. This got him to thinking about the nature of
gravity and motion. Since he was no ordinary bumpkin, he soon formulated some basic rules about the way objects behave
when in motion.
One of the "laws of motion" he came up with says that any object in motion stays in motion unless acted upon by an outside
force. Though this seems pretty obvious to us today, at the time it was a scientific breakthrough because nobody up to that
point in history had figured out a way to express the concept mathematically. He soon developed formulas that could
accurately predict the exact amount of force needed to accelerate an object of a given size (mass) to a given speed, or
conversely how much force it would take to stop an object of a given mass traveling at a given speed. The guy's name was
Newton's laws of motion and the formulas he developed became the foundation of modern physics and engineering. The guy
even invented a new branch of mathematics called calculus so automotive engineers would someday have the tools to analyze
and evaluate braking performance in today's vehicles.
BRAKE HORSEPOWER & HEAT
Okay, we've explained how brakes produce friction, and friction produces heat, and this is what brings a vehicle to a stop. But
we haven't explained how much heat is actually produced.
Think of heat as a form of energy or power. A more familiar term is "horsepower." We all know what horsepower is, right? It's
the stuff that spins the crankshaft when fuel is burned inside an engine. Combustion produces heat, and heat pushes the
pistons that make the crankshaft go around. One horsepower is equal to 33,000 pounds-feet of torque per minute, or 550
pounds-feet per second.
We measure an engine's horsepower output by hooking it up to a dyno and seeing how much force it can exert against the
resistance created by the dyno. In effect, the dyno acts like a giant brake, so the engine's power output is sometimes called its
"brake" horsepower output.
By the same token, we can also measure how much horsepower a vehicle's brakes must absorb when bringing the vehicle to a
stop from a given speed. This is also called "brake" horsepower, but in this case it refers to the brake system not the engine.
The brake systems on vehicles must be capable of absorbing a lot more horsepower than the engine typically produces
because the heat (power) that's generated when braking occurs over a short period of time. Thus, a small car might only need
100 horsepower from the engine to accelerate from zero to a speed of 60 mph. If the driver slams on the brakes and comes to
a screeching halt, the brakes have to absorb all the momentum in a much shorter period of time. This multiples the amount of
horsepower that must be absorbed, as much as six times depending on the stopping distance. So a panic stop from 60 mph
might require the brakes to absorb the equivalent of up to 600 horsepower!
Don't worry about the math because it depends on the speed and mass of the vehicle and the stopping distance. The
important point is the brakes often have to absorb a great deal of heat in a very short period of time.
How much heat, you ask? Using more math, units of horsepower can be converted into units of heat energy called BTUs
(British Thermal Units. One BTU is the amount of heat it takes to raise one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. If you
multiply horsepower by the proper conversion factor, you discover that one horsepower generates 42.4 BTUs of heat per
minute. If stopping a 4000 lb. vehicle from 60 mph in roughly 150 feet requires 600 horsepower of force, it's the equivalent of
25,440 TUs of heat -- which is enough heat to raise 15 gallons of water from zero degrees to boiling! No wonder the brakes get
One thing all brake manufacturers monitor very closely when testing and evaluating pads and rotors is the temperature of the
brakes. Every time the brakes are applied, the pads and rotors generate heat that must be absorbed and dissipated. A quick
stop from 60 mph can easily push the rotor temperature up 150 or more degrees. Several hard stops in quick succession can
push brake temperatures into the 600, 700 or even 800 degree range. Remember, the heavier the vehicle the more heat it
creates when it brakes.
Riding the brakes down a steep mountain road or repeated hard brake applications can produce so much heat the brakes
begin to fade.
When brake temperatures get too high, the pads and rotors are no longer able to absorb any more heat and lose their ability to
create any additional friction. As the driver presses harder and harder on the brake pedal, he feels less and less response from
his overheated rakes. Eventually, he lose his brakes altogether.
All brakes will fade beyond a certain temperature. Semi-metallic linings can usually take more heat than nonasbestos organic
or low-met linings. Vented rotors can dissipate heat more rapidly than nonvented solid rotors. Thus, high performance cars and
heavier vehicles often have vented rotors and semi-metallic front brake pads to handle high brake temperatures. But if the
brakes get hot enough, even the best ones will fade.
THE ROTOR'S ROLE
Now that we've covered some of the physics of braking and the effects of friction and heat on the brake system, let's look at
the rotors role in all of this. As we said earlier, the rotor's job is to provide a friction surface, and to absorb and dissipate heat.
Big rotors can obviously handle more heat than small rotors. But many cars today have downsized rotors to reduce weight.
Consequently, the brakes run hotter and require better rotor cooling to keep brake temperatures within safe limits.
Anybody who works on brakes for a living knows that rotors can cause a lot of brake problems. Uneven rotor wear (which may
be due to excessive rotor runout or rotor distortion) often produces variations in thickness that can be felt as pedal pulsations
when the brakes are applied. The condition usually worsens as the rotors continue to wear, eventually requiring the rotors to be
resurfaced or replaced.
Rotors can also develop hard spots that contribute to pedal pulsations and variations in thickness. Hard spots may be the
result of poor quality castings or from excessive heat that causes changes in the metallurgy of the rotors. A sticky caliper or
dragging brake may make the rotor run hot and increase the risk of hard spots forming. Hard pots can often be seen as
discolored patches on the face of the rotor. Resurfacing the rotor is only a temporary fix because the hard spot usually extends
well below the surface and usually returns as a pedal pulsation within a few thousand miles. That's why most brake experts
replace rotors that have developed hard spots.
Cracks are another concern with rotors. Cracks can form as a result of poor metallurgy in the rotor (too hard and too brittle
because the rotor was allowed to cool too quickly during the casting process), and from excessive heat. Some minor surface
cracking is tolerable and can often be removed by resurfacing, but large cracks or deep cracks weaken the rotor and increase
the risk of catastrophic failure. So cracked rotors should always be replaced.
The metallurgical properties of a rotor determines its strength, noise, wear and braking characteristics. The casting process
must be carefully controlled to produce a high quality rotor. You can't ust dump molten iron into a mold and hope for the best.
The rate at which the iron cools in the mold must be closely monitored to achieve the correct tensile strength, hardness and
When iron cools, the carbon atoms that are mixed in with it form small flakes of graphite which help dampen and quiet noise. If
the iron cools too quickly, the particles of graphite don't have as much time to form and are much smaller in size, which makes
for a noisy rotor.
The rate of cooling also affects the hardness of a rotor. If a rotor is too hard, it will increase pad wear and noise. Hard rotors
are also more likely to crack from thermal stress. If a rotor is too soft, it will wear too quickly and may wear unevenly increasing
the risk of pedal pulsation and runout problems.
The composition of the iron must also be closely controlled during the casting process to keep out impurities that may form
"inclusions" and hard spots. One rotor manufacturer says they sample the molten ron every 15 seconds to make sure the
composition is correct. The molten metal is also poured through ceramic filters that trap contaminants.
then the sand that's
used to make the molds is specially treated to control moisture content. This helps keep the sand in place and revents core
shifts that can affect porosity, dimensional accuracy and balance.
The grade of cast iron that's used in a rotor may even be changed to suit a particular application. One aftermarket rotor
manufacturer uses a special grade of "dampened iron" to make replacement rotors for 1997-2002 Chevrolet Malibu and its
sister vehicles (Olds Alero, Olds CUtlass and Pontiac Grand Am). In this case, the original OEM rotors turned out to be too
noisy so General Motors switched to a dampened grade of iron to cure the problem.
Vehicle manufacturers use a wide variety of different cooling rib configurations in their rotors. They do this to optimize cooling
for different vehicle applications. So even though the brakes may appear o be identical on two different models, one may
require increased cooling because the vehicle is heavier, has a more powerful engine, has less airflow around the brakes, etc.
Some aftermarket rotor manufacturers use the same rib design and configuration as the OEM rotors while others do not. Some
change the rib design to simplify the casting process or to reduce the number of different rotor SKUs in their product lines.
The OEMs currently use almost 70 different rib configurations in their rotors. Some ribs are straight, some are curved and
some are even segmented. Some rotors are directional and some are not. Some rotors have evenly spaced ribs while others do
not. Some ribs radiate outward from the center and others go every which way.
One reason why they use so many different rib patterns is to maximize cooling and to reduce harmonics that contribute to
brake squeal. Changing the rib design changes the airflow, cooling and noise characteristics of the rotor -- which may make
things better or worse depending on the application. That's why some aftermarket rotor manufacturers use the same basic
design as the original while others stick with more traditional venting.
One brake manufacturer showed us a cutaway of an offshore "economy" rotor for a particular vehicle that had 32 ribs. The
OEM rotor, by comparison, had 37 ribs and provided up to 8% better cooling than the economy rotor when tested in the
laboratory. And because the OEM rib design ran cooler, pad life was 28% longer than the economy rotor.
Another aftermarket brake manufacturer showed us test results that proved their rib design improves cooling and makes their
rotor three times quieter than a competitive rotor. The recorded sound levels showed noise as high as 85 decibels screaming
out of the Brand X economy rotor compared to only 40 to 50 decibels from their own "premium" quality rotor.
A heat dam is often machined into the area between the friction surface and hat on most rotors. The dam is a thinner section of
metal that reduces heat transfer from the rotor surface to the hat. This protects the wheel hub and bearings from the heat and
also allows the rotor to flex when it gets hot to reduce the risk of warping and cracking.
If a rotor manufacturer cuts corners and eliminates the heat dam, heat can travel more easily to the hub and wheel bearings
and increase the risk of bearing failure. The rotor may also be more prone to cracking under high heat conditions.
We'll finish up with a few comments about surface finish. Smoother is always better because it affects the coefficient of friction,
noise, pad seating, pad break-in and wear. As a rule, most new OEM and quality aftermarket rotors have a finish somewhere
between 30 and 60 inches RA (roughness average) with many falling in the 0 to 50 RA range. It's unlikely you're going to
improve this any y "cleaning up the rotors" on a bench lathe prior to installing them. In fact, you may make the finish worse if
you cut the rotors too quickly or use bits that are dull.
New rotors should always be installed "as is" -- and indexed on the vehicle with a dial indicator to minimize runout. Few
technicians take the time to do this, but if they did they'd probably see fewer comebacks because of pedal pulsation